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Вторник 30.05.2017 18:57 ast
15:57 msk

Опубликован очередной рейтинг экономических свобод
В пятерку лидеров вошли: Гонконг, Сингапур, Австралия, США и Новая Зеландия. Казахстану досталось 75-е место, России 120-е
17.01.2007 / экономика

www.mirtv.ru, 16 января

В мире опубликован очередной рейтинг экономических свобод. В этом году специалисты компании Heritage Foundation оценили свободу предпринимательства 161-й страны.

В пятерку лидеров вошли: Гонконг, Сингапур, Австралия, США и Новая Зеландия. Среди стран Содружества лучший результат показала Армения, она заняла 32 место. С небольшим отставанием - на 35-й позиции - разместилась Грузия. Казахстану досталось 75-е место, Кыргызстану - 79-е, Молдове – 81-е. Россия в этом году стала 120-й (с пояснением "относительно свободная"). Еще хуже с экономическими свободами на Украине. Она заняла 125 место.

Традиционно рейтинг составляется на основе 10 категорий, касающихся экономических, торговых и фискальных свобод, а также степени вмешательства государства в экономику.

--

2007 Index of Economic Freedom
www.heritage.org


http://www.heritage.org/index/countries.cfm

Country - Rank [Freedom %]

    Hong Kong1[89.3]     Fiji80[59.8]
 Singapore2[85.7]  Moldova81[59.5]
 Australia3[82.7]  Kenya82[59.4]
 United States4[82.0]  Turkey83[59.3]
 New Zealand5[81.6]  Sri Lanka84[59.3]
 United Kingdom6[81.6]  Saudi Arabia85[59.1]
 Ireland7[81.3]  Senegal86[58.8]
 Luxembourg8[79.3]  Poland87[58.8]
 Switzerland9[79.1]  Cape Verde88[58.4]
 Canada10[78.7]  Pakistan89[58.2]
 Chile11[78.3]  Guyana90[58.2]
 Estonia12[78.1]  Ghana91[58.1]
 Denmark13[77.6]  Zambia92[57.9]
 Netherlands14[77.1]  Gambia, The93[57.6]
 Iceland15[77.1]  Greece94[57.6]
 Finland16[76.5]  Argentina95[57.5]
 Belgium17[74.5]  Morocco96[57.4]
 Japan18[73.6]  Philippines, The97[57.4]
 Germany19[73.5]  Tajikistan98[56.9]
 Cyprus20[73.1]  Paraguay99[56.8]
 Sweden21[72.6]  Dominican Republic100[56.7]
 Lithuania22[72.0]  Mozambique101[56.6]
 Trinidad and Tobago23[71.4]  Cambodia102[56.5]
 Bahamas24[71.4]  Tanzania103[56.4]
 Austria25[71.3]  India104[55.6]
 Taiwan26[71.1]  Ivory Coast105[55.5]
 Spain27[70.9]  Malawi106[55.5]
 Barbados28[70.5]  Azerbaijan107[55.4]
 El Salvador29[70.3]  Ecuador108[55.3]
 Norway30[70.1]  Croatia109[55.3]
 Czech Republic31[69.7]  Indonesia110[55.1]
 Armenia32[69.4]  Guinea111[63.7]
 Uruguay33[69.3]  Bolivia112[63.7]
 Mauritius34[69.0]  Burkina Faso113[63.6]
 Georgia35[68.7]  Benin114[63.4]
 Korea, South36[68.6]  Bosnia and Herzegovina115[63.4]
 Israel37[68.4]  Ethiopia116[62.7]
 Botswana38[68.4]  Cameroon117[62.2]
 Bahrain39[68.4]  Lesotho118[62.1]
 Slovak Republic, The40[68.4]  China119[61.6]
 Latvia41[68.2]  Russia120[61.4]
 Malta42[67.8]  Nepal121[61.4]
 Portugal43[66.7]  Yemen122[61.3]
 Hungary44[66.2]  Mali123[61.2]
 France45[66.1]  Niger124[61.0]
 Jamaica46[66.1]  Ukraine125[60.9]
 Panama47[65.9]  Mauritania126[60.8]
 Malaysia48[65.8]  Egypt127[60.7]
 Mexico49[65.8]  Equatorial Guinea128[60.5]
 Thailand50[65.6]  Gabon129[60.4]
 Costa Rica51[65.1]  Djibouti130[60.4]
 South Africa52[64.1]  Nigeria131[60.3]
 Jordan53[64.0]  Uzbekistan132[60.3]
 Oman54[63.9]  Suriname133[60.1]
 Namibia55[63.8]  Algeria134[59.9]
 Belize56[63.7]  Haiti135[59.8]
 Kuwait57[63.7]  Rwanda136[59.5]
 Slovenia58[63.6]  Central African Repubic137[59.4]
 Uganda59[63.4]  Vietnam138[59.3]
 Italy60[63.4]  Togo139[59.3]
 Nicaragua61[62.7]  Laos140[59.1]
 Bulgaria62[62.2]  Sierra Leone141[58.8]
 Peru63[62.1]  Syria142[58.8]
 Swaziland64[61.6]  Bangladesh143[58.4]
 Madagascar65[61.4]  Venezuela144[58.2]
 Albania66[61.4]  Belarus145[58.2]
 Romania67[61.3]  Burundi146[58.1]
 Guatemala68[61.2]  Chad147[57.9]
 Tunisia69[61.0]  Guinea Bissau148[57.6]
 Brazil70[60.9]  Angola149[57.6]
 Macedonia71[60.8]  Iran150[57.5]
 Qatar72[60.7]  Congo, Republic of151[57.4]
 Colombia73[60.5]  Turkmenistan152[57.4]
 United Arab Emirates74[60.4]  Burma153[56.9]
 Kazakhstan75[60.4]  Zimbabwe154[56.8]
 Honduras76[60.3]  Libya155[56.7]
 Lebanon77[60.3]  Cuba156[56.6]
 Mongolia78[60.1]  Korea, North157[56.5]
 Kyrgyz Republic, The79[59.9]  Sudan - Not Ranked
      Serbia - Not Ranked
      Congo, Dem. Republic of - Not Ranked
      Iraq - Not Ranked


-----

Kazakhstan (www.heritage.org)
Rank: 75
Regional Rank: 10 of 30

Quick Facts
Population: 15 million
GDP (PPP): $111.6 billion
9.6% growth in 2004
10.4% 5-yr. comp. ann. growth
$7,440 per capita
Unemployment: 8.4%
Inflation (CPI): 6.9%
FDI (net inflow): $5.6 billion
Official Development Assistance: $262 million (22% from the U.S.)
Exports: $22.6 billion
Primarily oil and oil products, ferrous metals, chemicals, machinery, grain
Imports: $18.8 billion
Primarily machinery and equipment, metal products, food



Kazakhstan"s economy is 60.4 percent free, according to our 2007 assessment, which makes it the world"s 75th freest economy. Its overall score is 0.8 percentage point lower than last year, partially reflecting new methodological detail. Kazakhstan is ranked 10th out of 30 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, and its overall score is just above the regional average.
Kazakhstan scores highly in fiscal freedom, freedom from government, and labor freedom. The top income and corporate tax rates are a moderate 20 percent and 30 percent, respectively. The government also imposes additional taxes, however, and overall tax revenue is somewhat high as a percentage of GDP. Government expenditure is also somewhat high, although the government has gradually been privatizing businesses. Kazakhstan has a highly flexible labor system.
Kazakhstan"s economy has significant shortcomings. Investment freedom, property rights, and freedom from corruption are weak. Foreign investment in virtually all sectors is restricted by exclusive barriers and bureaucratic incompetence. Government policy actively favors domestic businesses, and the weak rule of law allows for significant corruption and insecure property rights.

Background:
Kazakhstan became an independent nation in 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Although Nursultan Nazarbayev prevailed in the December 2005 presidential election, political infighting continues within the ruling class. The energy sector has driven economic growth, thanks to an energy boom that began in 2000. China has invested billions in oil companies and pipelines to access Kazakhstan"s hydrocarbon resources, and output is projected to grow from 1.2 million barrels a day in 2006 to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2020. Kazakhstan has also begun to develop financial services and light industry sectors.

Business Freedom - 66.5%
Starting a business takes an average of 20 days, compared to the world average of 48 days. Obtaining a business license and closing a business can be difficult. Lack of transparency and inconsistent application of commercial laws remain obstacles to business. The overall freedom to start, operate, and close a business is relatively well protected by the national regulatory environment.

Trade Freedom - 64.2%
Kazakhstan"s average tariff rate was 7.9 percent in 2005. The government has made progress toward a more liberal trade regime, but non-transparent and burdensome regulations and standards, service market access barriers, opaque government procurement procedures, and customs corruption continue to add to the cost of trade. Consequently, an additional 20 percent is deducted from Kazakhstan"s trade freedom score to account for these non-tariff barriers.

Fiscal Freedom - 87.6%
Kazakhstan has a low income tax rate and a moderate corporate tax rate. The top income tax rate is 20 percent, and the top corporate tax rate is 30 percent. Other taxes include a value-added tax (VAT) and a vehicle tax. In the most recent year, overall tax revenue as a percentage of GDP was 23.6 percent.

Freedom from Government - 85.9%
Total government expenditures in Kazakhstan, including consumption and transfer payments, are low. In the most recent year, government spending equaled 23.3 percent of GDP, and the government received 4.2 percent of its total revenues from state-owned enterprises and government ownership of property. Privatization has been gradual but successful, although the transactions involved have lacked transparency.

Monetary Freedom - 72.9%
Inflation in Kazakhstan is relatively high, averaging 7.3 percent between 2003 and 2005. Relatively high and unstable prices explain most of the monetary freedom score. The market sets most prices, but the government retains the right to control prices when necessary. The government also influences prices through numerous state-owned enterprises and manufacturing subsidies, and little progress has been made in promoting competition in agriculture. Consequently, an additional 10 percent is deducted from Kazakhstan"s monetary freedom score to account for these policies.

Investment Freedom - 30.0%
The government constantly challenges contractual rights and legislates to favor domestic investors over foreign ones, all of which significantly deters foreign investment. No sector of the economy is closed to investment, but the government imposes a 25 percent cap on foreign capital in the banking system and a 20 percent ceiling on foreign ownership in media companies. It also screens foreign investment proposals in a process that is often non-transparent, arbitrary, and slow. Subject to restrictions, foreign exchange accounts may be held by residents and non-residents. Most capital transactions, payments, and transfers are subject to government approval, quantitative limits, and strict documentary requirements.

Financial Freedom - 60.0%
Kazakhstan"s banking system is the most developed in Central Asia. All banks are now required to meet international banking standards, including a risk-weighted 8 percent capital-adequacy ratio. As a result, the number of banks has fallen from 130 banks operating at the end of 1995 to 34 with licenses in January 2006. Foreign banks may not have branches but may establish subsidiaries, joint ventures, and representative offices. The government must approve ownership of over 25 percent of a bank. At the end of 2005, 14 banks had foreign participation, and 18 foreign banks had representative offices. There are three state-owned banks (a development bank, an export–import bank, and a housing finance bank) and two development funds, as well as a number of microfinance institutions. The insurance sector is small but has 34 licensed companies. Foreign insurance companies are limited to joint ventures with local companies. Capital markets are underdeveloped.

Property Rights - 30.0%
Kazakhstan"s legal system does not provide sufficient protection for private property. Most legal disputes arise from contract breaches or non-payment on the part of the government. Corruption remains widespread, and the judiciary views itself more as an arm of the executive than as an enforcer of contracts or guardian of property rights.

Freedom from Corruption - 26.0%
Corruption is perceived as widespread. Kazakhstan ranks 107th out of 158 countries in Transparency International"s Corruption Perceptions Index for 2005.

Labor Freedom - 80.5%
The labor market operates under flexible employment regulations that enhance employment and productivity growth. The non-salary cost of employing a worker can be high, but dismissing a redundant employee is costless. Regulations regarding firing a worker are flexible and straightforward.


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30.05.17 Вторник
76. ИСЛАМОВ Герс
71. АБАКАНОВ Танаткан
69. КОТОВИЧ Валерий
68. ТОГУСОВ Амирбек
66. КУСАИНОВ Аскарбек
62. МАКОВСКИЙ Анатолий
57. ТАЙЖАНОВ Ерлик
51. НУРАДИЛ Габит
50. КУРМАНБАЕВ Роман
47. САПАРГАЛИЕВ Аскар
40. МУНЖАСАРОВ Жумагали
38. БУРИБАЕВ Алан
36. БАЛАШОВ Андрей
30. ОМАРОВ Бакытжан
...>>>
31.05.17 Среда
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61. ХАТИЕВ Нурман
59. БОНДАРЕНКО Александр
59. ЯКУШЕВ Александр
55. ЗАБИРОВА Айгуль
55. ОНГАРБАЕВ Кайрат
52. МУРАТОВ Жомарт
49. ЗАИРОВ Марат
48. БИЖАНОВ Кайрат
48. ОРУНХАНОВ Кайрат
45. РЫСПЕКОВ Тусуп
43. ИБАТУЛЛИНА Эльмира
42. ШАЯХМЕТОВ Саят
41. КАЛЕНДЕРОВ Нуржан
41. ХАЛЫК Болат
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01.06.17 Четверг
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